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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 273-275  

Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation


Department of Dermatology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication2-Jul-2018

Correspondence Address:
Swagata Tambe
Department of Dermatology, Topiwala National Medical College and BYL Nair Hospital Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_219_17

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How to cite this article:
Save S, Tambe S, Nayak C. Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Indian Dermatol Online J 2018;9:273-5

How to cite this URL:
Save S, Tambe S, Nayak C. Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Indian Dermatol Online J [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Oct 23];9:273-5. Available from: http://www.idoj.in/text.asp?2018/9/4/273/235705



Sir,

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a malignant neoplasm of abnormal folliculosebaceous-apocrine germinative cells, constituting approximately 70% of all keratinocyte tumors. It commonly affects the head and neck region.[1] BCC with sebaceous differentiation is a rare histopathological variant.[2],[3]

A 42-year-old male presented with a solitary asymptomatic nodular swelling having erosion and crusting of the overlying skin close to the left nasolabial fold. There was history of a small pigmented lesion at the same site since childhood, which had increased in size with change in appearance for the last 3 months. He was a known hypertensive for the past 10 years and was on medication for the same. His medical history was otherwise unremarkable.

Cutaneous examination revealed a skin-colored nodule of 1 cm × 1.5 cm in size just below the left nasolabial fold with overlying crusting and telangiectasia [Figure 1]. Considering the morphology of the lesion, differential diagnoses of nodular BCC and keratoacanthoma were considered. Skin biopsy from the nodular lesion revealed the presence of poorly circumscribed tumor masses in the dermis with peripheral palisading of basaloid cells along with retraction artefacts. Higher magnification revealed nodular collection of basaloid cells separated by fibrous septae. These nodules contained tubular laminae lined by cornified cells having a crenulated inner surface as well as sebaceous differentiation with the presence of sebocytes. Final diagnosis of BCC with sebaceous differentiation was made [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]. The patient underwent surgical excision with 5-mm margin under local anesthesia. The margins of the excised specimen were devoid of tumor cells. Even after 2 years of follow-up, there is no recurrence of the tumor.
Figure 1: Well-defined nodular swelling just above the left side of the upper lip with crusting and telangiectasia

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Figure 2: Histopathology, acanthosis, papillomatosis, lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with evidence of tumor mass in the dermis with basaloid cells in palisading arrangement with retraction artefacts (H and E, 40×)

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Figure 3: Nodular collection of basaloid cells separated by fibrous septa along with tubular lamina lined by crenulated inner surface (H and E, 100×)

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Figure 4: Vacuolated cells with foamy, bubbly cytoplasm, which are suggestive of features of sebocytes (H and E, 400×)

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BCC is a malignant neoplasm derived from abnormal folliculosebaceous-apocrine germinative cells.[] BCC with sebaceous differentiation is a rare presenatation with very few reports.[2]

Histopathological examination of a BCC with sebaceous differentiation usually reveals poorly circumscribed neoplasm invading the deep dermis composed of columnar basaloid cells having slightly elongated nuclei aligned in a palisade at the periphery, retraction clefts between the stroma and tumor aggregates, and sebaceous duct-like structures. Vacuolated cells, with foamy, bubbly cytoplasm and scalloped or starry nuclei, suggestive of sebocytes are scattered within the tumor masses. These vacuolated cells are immunohistochemically positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).[4]

The criteria for the diagnosis of this tumor are variably defined by various authors. BCC with sebaceous differentiation is differentiated from sebaceous adenoma by a germinative cell component which occupies greater than 50% of the transverse diameter of tumor lobules that typically manifest a rounded morphology with areas of slit-like retraction and accompanied by mitoses and apoptotic debris. Unlike sebaceous carcinoma, there is no evidence of pagetoid spread in the overlying epidermis, haphazard infiltrative growth morphology, desmoplastic stromal reaction, and invasion of adjacent structures.

In constrast, sebaceous adenoma is characterized by a lining of germinative cells less than 50% of the diameter of the neoplastic lobule whereas sebaceous hyperplasia typically has a peripherally disposed layer of germinative cells, typically 1–2 cells thick. On the other hand, sebaceoma manifests a haphazard array of germinative epithelium admixed with sebocytes and structures that recapitulate sebaceous ducts.[5] Differentiating features between BCC with sebaceous differentiation, sebaceoma, and sebaceous carcinoma are listed in [Table 1].[1],[2],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10]
Table 1: Differentiating features between BCC with sebaceous differentiation, Sebaceoma and Sebaceous carcinoma

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BCC is a malignant neoplasm with rare variants of apocrine or follicular or sebaceous differentiation.[4] The rarity of BCC with sebaceous differentiation may be attributed to the ambiguous nomenclature of sebaceous neoplasms in the past and low awareness about this presentation. BCC with sebaceous differentaition usually does not have an adverse prognosis.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Dourmishev A, Popova L, Dourmishev L. Basal-cell carcinoma and squamous-cell carcinomas: Epidemiology, location and radiotherapy. Skin Cancer 1996;11:195-200.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Steffen CH, Ackerman AB. Basal-cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. In: Steffen CH, Ackerman AB, editors. Neoplasms with Sebaceous Differentiation. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1994. pp 577-96.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Finan MC, Connolly SM. Sebaceous gland tumors and systemic disease: A clinicopathologic analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 1984;63:232-42.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Misago N, Suse T, Uemura T, Narisawa Y. Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sebaceous Differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol 2004;26:298-303.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Misago N, Mihara I, Ansai S, Narisawa Y. Sebaceoma and related neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation. Am J Dermatopathol 2002;24:294-304.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ackerman AB, Reddy VB, Soyer HP. Trichoblastic carcinoma. In: Ackerman AB, Reddy VB, Soyer HP, editors. Neoplasms with Follicular Differentiation. New York, NY: Ardor Scribendi; 2001. pp 625-1005.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Troy JL, Ackerman AB. Sebaceoma. A distinctive benign neoplasm of adnexal epithelium differentiating toward sebaceous cells. Am J Dermatopathol 1984;6:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Steffen CH, Ackerman AB. Sebaceous carcinoma. In: Steffen CH, Ackerman AB, editors. Neoplasms with Sebaceous Differentiation. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1994. pp 487–574.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wolfe JT 3rd, Yeatts RP, Wick MR, Campbell RJ, Waller RR. Sebaceous carcinoma of the eyelid. Errors in clinical and pathologic diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1984;8:597-606.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Wick MR, Goellner JR, Wolfe JT 3rd, Su WP. Adnexal carcinomas of the skin. II. Extraocular sebaceous carcinomas. Cancer 1985;56:1163-72.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

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