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  Table of Contents  
THROUGH THE DERMOSCOPE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 613-614  

Dermoscopy of keratosis pilaris


1 SKINNOCENCE: The Skin Clinic, Gurugram, Haryana, India
2 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and Post-graduate Institute, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
3 Department of Dermatology, Poornima Hospital, HMT Layout, RT Nagar, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication28-Aug-2019

Correspondence Address:
Mary Thomas
18, Pearson Street, Guelph, Ontario
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_279_18

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How to cite this article:
Sonthalia S, Bhatia J, Thomas M. Dermoscopy of keratosis pilaris. Indian Dermatol Online J 2019;10:613-4

How to cite this URL:
Sonthalia S, Bhatia J, Thomas M. Dermoscopy of keratosis pilaris. Indian Dermatol Online J [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Nov 13];10:613-4. Available from: http://www.idoj.in/text.asp?2019/10/5/613/255538



A 21-year-old man with atopic diathesis presented with multiple pin-head-sized erythematous to light brown-colored, non-scaly, keratotic follicular papules, closely clustered over the anterior aspect of thighs [Figure 1] and outer arms for past 6–7 years, associated with occasional itching. His sibling had similar lesions. There was no evidence of facial/truncal acne, seborrheic dermatitis, or spiny papules over the knees or elbows. Palms, soles, nails, and mucosae were unremarkable. A differential diagnosis of keratosis pilaris (KP), follicular psoriasis, phrynoderma, and pityrosporum folliculitis was considered.
Figure 1: Multiple pin-head-sized erythematous to light brown-colored, non-scaly, keratotic follicular papules, closely clustered over the anterior aspect of the thigh

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Polarized dermoscopy from thigh lesions revealed a faint reddish-light brown background with scattered vascular ectasias, twisted hairs forming loops and irregular coils, and vellus hairs [Figure 2]a. Dermoscopy from the outer arm additionally revealed perifollicular papular erythema, hairs emerging in groups of 2–3, focal peripilar casts, and scattered pigmented globules [Figure 2]b. Basket weave and lamellated orthokeratosis, follicular infundibular dilatation and plugging with focal peri-infundibular parakeratosis, perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate, and absence of yeast cells on histopathology [Figure 3] confirmed the clinicodermoscopic diagnosis of KP.
Figure 2: Dermoscopic features from lesions of keratosis pilaris: (a) from the thigh revealing faint reddish-light brown background with scattered vascular ectasias, twisted hairs forming loops (white arrow) and irregular coils (black arrow), and presence of vellus hairs (blue arrows); and (b) from the outer arm showing scattered vellus hairs (blue arrow), perifollicular papular erythema (yellow arrow), hairs emerging in groups of 2–3 (black arrow), and focal peri-pilar cast (white arrow). Appreciate the additional presence of scattered pigmented brown-colored globules. (E-scope videodermoscope, polarized mode, ×20)

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Figure 3: Histopathology from thigh lesion revealing (a) basket weave and lamellated orthokeratosis, and (b) follicular infundibular dilatation and plugging with focal peri-infundibular parakeratosis, and perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate confirming the diagnosis of active keratosis pilaris (hematoxylin and eosin, ×100 and ×400)

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KP, characterized by clustered 1 mm-sized, folliculo-centric keratotic papules with surrounding erythema, typically involving the extensor aspect of forearms and thighs is a common autosomal dominant dermatosis.[1],[2] Common differentials include phrynoderma, follicular psoriasis, seborrheids, truncal acne, and folliculitis. Although skin biopsy is diagnostic, dermoscopy facilitates instant non-invasive diagnosis of this benign condition.

The exact pathogenesis of KP remains unclear. The likelihood of KP being a disorder of keratinization has been challenged by Thomas and Khopkar, based on their dermoscopic findings.[3] They have suggested the coiled hair shaft to be central to its histogenesis that ruptures the follicular epithelium leading to inflammation and abnormal follicular keratinization.

Dermoscopic features of KP include presence of vellus hairs that are frequently coiled, semi-circular or looped, peri-follicular erythema, and peri-pilar casts.[3],[4] Hairs may emerge in groups of 2 or 3. Vascular ectasias have been described.[5] Although never described earlier, dyschromic changes (pigmented globules) seen in this case have been observed in older healing lesions in majority of Indian patients, suggesting postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. This may represent the quintessential difference between dermoscopic features of cutaneous conditions in darker versus lighter skin types.[6] [Table 1] details the dermoscopic differentiation of KP from its close clinical simulators.[3],[4],[7],[8],[9],[10]
Table 1: Dermoscopic features of keratosis pilaris and important conditions with similar clinical morphology

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Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Baden HP, Byers HR. Clinical findings, cutaneous pathology and response to therapy in 21 patients with keratosis pilaris atrophicans. Arch Dermatol 1994;130:469-75.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Poskitt L, Wilkinson JD. Natural history of keratosis pilaris. Br J Dermatol 1994;130:711-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Thomas M, Khopkar US. Keratosis pilaris revisited: Is it more than just a follicular keratosis? Int J Trichology 2012;4:255-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Panchaprateep R, Tanus A, Tosti A. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features of body hair disorders. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015;72:890-900.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sallakachart P, Nakjang Y. Keratosis pilaris: A clinico-histopathologic study. J Med Assoc Thai 1987;70:386-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sonthalia S, Jha AK, Sarkar R, Ankad BS. Disorders of pigmentation. In: Lallas A, Errichetti E, Ioannides D, editors. Dermoscopy in General Dermatology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2018. p. 282-94.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Behera B, Gochhait D, Remya R, Resmi MR, Kumari R, Thappa DM. Follicular psoriasis – dermoscopic features at a glance. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017;83:702-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.
Ramirez-Fort MK, Khan F, Rosendahl CO, Mercer SE, Shim-Chang H, Levitt JO. Acquired perforating dermatosis: A clinical and dermatoscopic correlation. Dermatol Online J 2013;19:18958.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
López-Gómez A, Vera-Casaño Á, Gómez-Moyano E, Salas-García T, Dorado-Fernández M, Hernández-Gil-Sánchez J, et al. Dermoscopy of circumscribed juvenile pityriasis rubra pilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015;72(Suppl 1):S58-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jakhar D, Kaur I, Chaudhary R. Dermoscopy of pityrosporum folliculitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad. 2018.08.057.  Back to cited text no. 10
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

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