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BRIEF REPORT
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 195-201

Nail changes in leprosy: An observational study of 125 patients


1 Department of Skin and VD, SBH Govt. Medical College, Dhule, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Skin and VD, KIMS, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Chetan D Rajput
Department of Skin and VD, SBH Govt. Medical College, Chakkarbardi, Dhule - 424 002, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_172_19

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Introduction: Leprosy is a disease primarily affecting skin and nerve. Nail involvement, although indirect, is observed in several patients. This is a study to determine the pattern of nail changes in leprosy. Methods: It was an observational study involving 125 patients. Apart from cutaneous and neurological examination, nails were examined. Diagnosis was confirmed by previous records in already diagnosed cases, while by slit skin smear and histopathologically in new cases. Patients were grouped as per Ridley-Jopling classification and further subdivided as per age, sex, and duration and reaction status. Nail changes in these groups were summarized and compared. Results: Overall prevalence of nail changes was 80% with 66.6% in TT patients, 79.4% in BT patients 50% in BB patients, 83.7% in BL patients and 84.3% in LL patients. Longitudinal melanonychia and longitudinal ridges were frequent finger nail changes with longitudinal melanonychia being more common among tuberculoid pole and longitudinal ridges among lepromatous pole. Brachyonychia, subungual hyperkeratosis and brown black pigmentation were frequent finger nail changes, with onychorrhexis being commonest among TT patients, subungual hyperkeratosis among BT patients, while brachyonychia among BL and LL patients. Anonychia and rudimentary nails were not found in tuberculoid pole. Beau's lines, terry nails, pterygium, pincer nail, and onychorrhexis were significantly more frequent in ENL patients. Onychomadesis, which is not reported yet in leprosy, was found in one patient after severe ENL. Conclusion: Various changes in leprosy are due to multiple causes like neuropathic, traumatic, vascular, osseous, infections and drugs reflecting extensive systemic morbidity caused by Mycobacterium leprae.


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