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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
March-April 2018
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 83-147

Online since Monday, March 19, 2018

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Current situation of leprosy in India and its future implications Highly accessed article p. 83
P Narasimha Rao, Sujai Suneetha
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_282_17  PMID:29644191
The global leprosy situation has changed significantly over the last four decades after the introduction of multidrug therapy (MDT) in 1982 with a reduction in prevalence from over 5 million cases in the mid-1980s to less than 200,000 at the end of 2016. The programme in India also saw a reduction from a prevalence rate of 57.8/10,000 in 1983 to less than 1/10,000 by the end of 2005 when India declared to have reached the World Health Organization (WHO) target of elimination as a public health problem. Post 2005, major changes in the programme were made by the National leprosy eradication programme (NLEP) and the global leprosy programme, which may have affected the new case detection (NCD), disability, and child leprosy trends, which continue to show no appreciable regression. This article reviews the current global and Indian leprosy scenario to bring out its achievements and successes, including the impact of Leprosy Case Detection Campaigns (LCDC) on leprosy numbers. The basis and expected benefits of recent introduction of chemo and immune-prophylaxis in the programme are also discussed. It also discusses the shortcomings, the areas of concern, and the need for an inclusive strategy in the Indian leprosy programme that includes an intersectoral collaboration within the country for reaching the desired goal of leprosy eradication.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Is antifungal resistance a cause for treatment failure in dermatophytosis: A study focused on tinea corporis and cruris from a tertiary centre? Highly accessed article p. 90
Kabir Sardana, Ravinder Kaur, Pooja Arora, Ritu Goyal, Sneha Ghunawat
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_137_17  PMID:29644192
Background: Dermatophytoses are one of the most common skin diseases that have been largely simple to treat. However, in recent years, these infections have become recalcitrant to treatment which can possibly be due to antifungal resistance. Aim: To analyze the resistance pattern of patients with recalcitrant dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was undertaken of 40 consecutive patients with recalcitrant tinea corporis/cruris/both who had taken systemic antifungal treatment and did not respond completely to therapy or had recurrent lesion within 1 month of stopping the therapy. Terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and voriconazole were the antifungals tested using broth microdilution assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, and MIC50, 90 values were recorded. Results: KOH mount was positive in 18 (45%) patients, culture was positive in 28 (70%) patients. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (35%) and T. rubrum (27.5%) were the predominant isolates. Overall, activity of terbinafine and itraconazole were significantly higher than the other drugs tested. For terbinafine, both T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were inhibited at MIC90of 0.125 μg/ml. Itraconazole-inhibited T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum at MIC90of 0.0625 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. All isolates had reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Conclusion: While MIC seen were higher than western data, in-vitro resistance (>1 μg/ml) to antifungals was not seen and probably may not be a cause of treatment failure. Possibly, treatment failure lies in the intricate host fungal interaction and virulence of species which help it to evade host immune response.
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Nonvenereal penile dermatoses: A retrospective study p. 96
Ana Marcos-Pinto, Luís Soares-de-Almeida, João Borges-Costa
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_23_17  PMID:29644193
Context: A variety of nonvenereal diseases can affect the penis and diminish quality of life. Many present similar clinical features and a cutaneous biopsy may be necessary to clarify the diagnosis. Aims: To characterize nonvenereal penile dermatoses with histological confirmation in a southwestern Europe hospital during a 9-year period. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. We reviewed all penile biopsies performed between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015 and studied the causes of the nonvenereal penile dermatoses. Results: The sample included a total of 108 patients, aged 62.9 (±17.8) years, between 16 years and 96 years of age. Eighteen dermatoses were identified. Inflammatory diseases were present in 65. 7% of patients (71/108) and neoplastic dermatoses in 34. 3% (37/108). Concerning inflammatory dermatoses, the most frequent were Zoon balanitis (27.8%, 30/108), followed by lichen sclerosus (15.7%, 17/108), psoriasis (11.1%, 12/108), and lichen planus (4.6%, 5/108). In patients with psoriasis, 10 had lesions only in the penis, similarly to all patients with lichen planus. The most frequent malignant tumor was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (15.7%, 17/108). The most common in-situ tumor was erythroplasia of Queyrat (8.3%, 9/108). A case of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was found. Kaposi sarcoma and mycosis fungoides on penis were also diagnosed, as an additional form of presentation to their generalized disease. Conclusions: In this study, inflammatory diseases were the most frequently diagnosed dermatoses, while SCC was the most common malignant tumor found. In the majority of psoriasis and lichen planus cases, clinical lesions were only present in the genital area.
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Safety and efficacy of different systemic treatment modalities for acute pain of herpes zoster: A pilot study p. 101
Sanjiv Choudhary, Shivani Dhande, Sachin Kharat, AL Singh
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_377_16  PMID:29644194
Background: Herpes zoster is a viral infection of skin caused by Varicella Zoster virus. The most important symptom for which the patient seeks medical advice is pain, which is perceived before the development of rash and lasts even after its resolution. The pain during the first 30 days after onset of herpes zoster is known as acute herpetic neuralgia. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side-effects of different systemic treatment modalities for acute herpes zoster neuralgia. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel control study. Forty-five patients of herpes zoster within 72 hours of onset were enrolled after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria over a duration of 1 year. Pain severity was assessed after sequential distribution and allotment of patients in three groups using verbal rating scale (VRS). Patients in Group A (control group), were treated with Tab.valacyclovir (1 g tds × 7 days), Group B–Tab.valacyclovir (1 g tds × 7 days) + Cap. Pregabalin (75 mg bd × 1 month), and Group C –Tab.valacyclovir (1 g tds × 7 days) +Cap. Pregabalin (75 mg bd × 1 month) + Tab.methylprednisolone (0.64 mg/kg body weight in two divided doses × 7 days). Patients were followed up at 1, 4, 6 weeks. Complete resolution of acute pain and side-effects were noted. Results: At the end of 4 weeks, reduction in acute pain was statistically significant (P < 0.05) in all the three groups individually compared to the baseline value. At the end of 6 weeks, percentage of patients with persistence of pain was more in Group A and B compared to Group C, which was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). In group A, postherpetic neuralgia was observed in more patients compared to group B and C. No significant side-effects were observed in any group except vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness. Limitations: Sample size of this study was limited. Further studies with large sample size are required to further validate the findings of the present study. Conclusions: Combination therapy with valacyclovir, methylprednisolone, and pregabalin has better efficacy compared to valacyclovir and pregabalin and valacyclovir alone in the management of acute herpes zoster neuralgia. No significant side-effects were observed
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MUSINGS, OPINIONS, TIPS AND EXPERIENCES Top

Nail transillumination combined with dermoscopy for enhancing diagnosis of subungual hematoma p. 105
Feroze Kaliyadan, Karalikkattil T Ashique
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_295_17  PMID:29644195
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CASE REPORTS Top

Multispectral dermatoscopic features of chemical leucoderma with pigmented contact dermatitis p. 107
Balakrishnan Nirmal, Borra Santhikiran, Sramana Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_104_17  PMID:29644196
Chemical leukoderma is characterized by pigment loss on constant exposure to chemical agents. Its association with pigmented contact dermatitis is rare. Here, we report a 40-year-old female presenting with depigmented macule with surrounding hyperpigmentation over the upper forehead. We used a multispectral dermatoscope by which decreased pigment network was better visualized with blue light, and gray granular dots were better appreciated with yellow light. Shorter wavelengths delineate epidermal features better whereas longer wavelengths highlight dermal features in multispectral dermatoscopy.
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Clinical spectrum of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome: A series of five cases p. 110
Nandakishore Singh Thokchom, D Pradeepa, NA Bishurul Hafi, Kapila Verma
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_107_17  PMID:29644197
Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome (Gardner Diamond syndrome or GDS) is a rare syndrome characterized by painful and spontaneous purpura commonly affecting adult women, and is mostly associated with psychiatric illness. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical presentation, exclusion of other simulating diseases, and psychiatric evaluation. Only few cases have been reported till date. We report five cases of spontaneous purpura with a normal investigation profile, except for iron deficiency anemia in 1 patient, of which three had associated underlying psychiatric illness. Autoerythrocyte sensitization test was positive in all our cases. Patients presenting with painful bruises without significant medical history such as underlying bleeding disorder or drug history or history of trauma should be considered for autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome, and managed accordingly. The present study is a case series of patients with characteristic features of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome, considering the rarity of the reports on its clinical spectra.
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Olmsted syndrome with lateral supraciliary madarosis and clubbing: A rare case report p. 114
Md Zeeshan, Abhijeet K Jha, R. K. P Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_95_17  PMID:29644198
Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare congenital, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma first described by Olmsted in 1927. It starts in the neonatal period or in childhood, and has a slow but progressive disabling course. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with keratoderma of the palm and soles since childhood with lateral supraciliary madarosis and clubbing. The patient was started on oral retinoids and topical keratolytics and had partial improvement in 2 months. Keratoderma of the palms and soles along with lateral supraciliary madarosis and clubbing in our case is a very rare finding, and to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported so far.
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Granuloma annulare skin lesions in a case of sarcoidosis p. 117
Ajay Chopra, Debdeep Mitra, Loknandini Sharma, Reetu Agarwal
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_162_17  PMID:29644199
We report the case of a 32-year- old man with a short 3-week history of erythematous, annular, non scaly plaques on palmar and dorsal aspect of his hands, who was concurrently diagnosed as a case of sarcoidosis on the basis of findings of generalized lymphadenopathy and radiological and histological features of pulmonary sarcoidosis. His skin biopsy was consistent with the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. Sarcoidosis and granuloma annulare are two separate diseases, which involve the skin and have a mononuclear histiocytic cellular reaction, although their aetiology is still unknown. Granuloma annulare has been associated with the concomitant diagnosis of sarcoidosis in only two more case reports and this association can be evaluated further to study a common link in the aetipathogenesis of these two granulomatous skin diseases.
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CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Top

Antifungal efficacy of amphotericin b against dermatophytes and its relevance in recalcitrant dermatophytoses: A commentary p. 120
Surabhi Sinha, Kabir Sardana
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_103_17  PMID:29644200
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Behçet disease in a child: A rare disorder with an unusual complication and favorable outcome p. 123
Avinash Sharma, Dipankar De, Kim Vaiphei, Richie Dalai, Apurba Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_133_17  PMID:29644201
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Top

Nasal mucosal dysplasia induced by topical corticosteroids with benzalkonium chloride p. 126
Funda Tamer, Erol Koc, Taylan Gun, Can Ergin
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_53_17  PMID:29644202
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Blaschkoid angioma serpiginosum: A dermoscopic diagnosis p. 127
Preema Sinha, Prince Y Singh, Aradhana Sood, Reena Bharadwaj
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_122_17  PMID:29644203
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Verrucous disseminated discoid lupus erythematosus with plantar and oral lesions in the absence of systemic lupus erthyematosus p. 129
Sruthy Manikkath, Raman Balakrishna Venkatta, Sukumaran Pradeep Nair, Gopinathan Nanda Kumar
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_125_17  PMID:29644204
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Pityriasis rosea in a mother and her daughter: A case report p. 131
Mehrdad Ashayer, Mina Mirnezami, Hoda Rahimi
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_135_17  PMID:29644205
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SKINDIA QUIZ Top

SkIndia Quiz 44: Growing asymptomatic nodule on the ear Highly accessed article p. 133
Alyssa Miceli, Ann Church, Sarah Ferrer-Bruker
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_141_17  PMID:29644206
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THROUGH THE LENS Top

Through the lens: Cryoglobulinemia p. 135
Shekhar Neema, D Banerjee, SK Pramanik
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_176_17  PMID:29644207
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THROUGH THE DERMOSCOPE Top

An “Abnormal” hair through the dermoscope: Arthropod body part mimicking a hair p. 136
Feroze Kaliyadan
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_97_17  PMID:29644208
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Use of filters in dermatoscopy to capture better images p. 137
Balakrishnan Nirmal
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_345_16  PMID:29644209
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Dermoscopy of hailey hailey disease p. 139
Payal Chauhan, Dilip Meena, Neirita Hazarika
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_202_17  PMID:29644210
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Dermoscopy of angiokeratoma p. 141
Abhijeet K Jha, Sidharth Sonthalia, Deepak Jakhar
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_278_17  PMID:29644211
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CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS Top

Pigmentary disorders and their management–analyzing current evidence: Conference proceedings and learning points. Pigmentarycon 2017. November 10–12, Indore, India p. 143
Indrashis Podder, Anupam Das, Rashmi Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_359_17  PMID:29644212
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