Indian Dermatology Online Journal

SKINDIA QUIZ
Year
: 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 257--258

SkIndia Quiz 10 - Papulonodular lesions in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patient


Lalit Kumar Gupta, Sonakshi Pargi, Ashok Kumar Khare, Asit Mittal, Sharad Mehta, CM Kuldeep 
 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Lalit Kumar Gupta
3-A, Sai Villa, Madhuvan, Opp. G.P.O., Udaipur - 313 001, Rajasthan
India




How to cite this article:
Gupta LK, Pargi S, Khare AK, Mittal A, Mehta S, Kuldeep C M. SkIndia Quiz 10 - Papulonodular lesions in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patient.Indian Dermatol Online J 2013;4:257-258


How to cite this URL:
Gupta LK, Pargi S, Khare AK, Mittal A, Mehta S, Kuldeep C M. SkIndia Quiz 10 - Papulonodular lesions in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive patient. Indian Dermatol Online J [serial online] 2013 [cited 2020 Aug 9 ];4:257-258
Available from: http://www.idoj.in/text.asp?2013/4/3/257/110655


Full Text

A 45-year-old male known to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and on anti-retroviral treatment for 3 years, presented with generalized, mildly itchy, firm, shiny, skin colored, papulonodular lesions present symmetrically on face, trunk, buttocks and extremities for 3 months. The lesions were most prominent around ear, ala nasi [Figure 1]a, knuckles, elbows [Figure 1]b, knee, buttocks [Figure 1]c, palms [Figure 1]d, and soles. Eroded papulonodules were also seen on hard palate [Figure 1]a. Some of the lesions morphologically resembled molluscum contagiosum [Figure 1]c. Generalized lymphadenopathy was noted. He was otherwise in good health. His CD4 count was 15 cells/mm 3 and other blood counts, liver function tests, andrenal function tests were within normal limits. X-ray chest was normal. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatosplenomegaly. Culture from skin lesion was negative. Histopathological examination of the lesions demonstrated epidermal atrophy and granulomatous infiltrate [Figure 2]a with parasitized histiocytes [Figure 2]b in the and entire dermis.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

 What is the Diagnosis?



 Answer



 View AnswerDiagnosis: Chronic disseminated histoplasmosis

 Discussion



Histoplasmosis also called Darling's disease is caused by a dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. [1] Histoplasmosis is found throughout the world, but is endemic in the central Eastern part of united states especially, Ohio and lower Mississippi river valleys. [2] Several cases have been reported from India, [3],[4],[5] although cultural confirmation has been obtained only in some. [2] Histoplasmosis may occur in three major clinical forms : Primary cutaneous, pulmonary, and progressive disseminated histoplasmosis. [6] Since the onset of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic, disseminated histoplasmosis has become a more common opportunistic fungal infection. [7] It occurs frequently in HIV-infected persons usually with CD4 counts <75 cells/μl. [6] Disseminated histoplasmosis presents a variable clinical picture depending on the degree of parasitization. Acute and sub acute forms present with fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, bone marrow depression and adrenal insufficiency. [7] Chronic disseminated disease, characterized by low parasitization, occurs almost exclusively in adults and may or may not have systemic sign and symptoms. [7] A wide variety of cutaneous lesions including papules, nodules, plaques, ulcers often with annular heaped up borders can be seen in disseminated histoplasmosis. Umblicated papules resembling molluscum contagiosum, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, panniculitis, and erythrodermic presentations may also be seen. Oral lesions occurs in about half of all the cases of disseminated histoplasmosis and may be the presenting sign of the disease. Biopsy of a cutaneous or mucosal lesion may be the most rapid way of arriving at the diagnosis as culture may require upto 4-week incubation period [7] and may be negative in many cases. [4] The diagnostic feature in histology is the presence of tiny 2-4 μm spores within the cytoplasm of macrophages and giant cells.

References

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6Hinshow M, Longley BJ. Fungal disease. In: Elder DE, Elenitsas R, Murphy GF, Johnson BL, Xu X, editors. Lever's Histopathology of the Skin. 10 th ed. New Delhi: Wolters Kluwer (South Asian edition); 2010. p. 611-2.
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