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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84-89

The diagnostic value of congenital and nevoid cutaneous lesions associated with autism spectrum disorders in indian children-A case-control study


1 Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Developmental Pediatrics, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Pediatric Neurology, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
5 Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
6 Division of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Renu George
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy (Retired), Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_275_20

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Background and Aims: Cutaneous lesions are the defining features of several neurocutaneous syndromes like neurofibromatosis1(NF1), tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), and Sturge Weber syndrome to name a few. With this background, we explored the possibility of identifying congenital and nevoid cutaneous markers that may help in the early recognition of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Indian children. The objective of this study was to measure the strength of association between congenital and nevoid cutaneous lesions and ASD among Indian children. Methods: A case-control study was conducted from January 2018 to June 2018. 132 children (18 months-16 years of age) with ASD and equal number of age and sex-matched children without autism were studied. Diagnosis of ASD was based on DSM-5 criteria. All the children were examined for cutaneous lesions with special attention to nevoid and congenital conditions. The strength of association was measured using the diagnostic odds ratio (OR). Results: The prevalence of congenital and nevoid lesions were higher in ASD group (OR = 3.12, P = 0.0001). Among them, pigmentary mosaicism of hyperpigmented type (OR = 2.76, P = 0.02) and café-au-lait macules (CALMs) (OR = 2.40, P = 0.001) were the most prevalent with hyperpigmented pigmentary mosaicism showing a higher association with autism. Atypical CALMs (OR = 2, P = 0.09) were also more prevalent in the ASD group though not statistically significant. Conclusion: The presence of hyperpigmented pigmentary mosaicism and CALMs warrant closer surveillance by the caregivers and physicians for evolving features of autism. Larger multicentric studies are required to validate these findings.


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