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THROUGH THE DERMOSCOPE
Ahead of print publication  

Dermoscopy of solitary epithelioid histiocytoma of the scalp: A novel feature


1 Department of Dermatology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Medicine, Command Hospital Air Force, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Date of Web Publication20-Jun-2021

Correspondence Address:
Aradhana Rout,
Department of Dermatology, Command Hospital Air Force, Old HAL Road, Agram Post, Bengaluru - 560 007, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_267_20



How to cite this URL:
Rout A, Chand S, Khurana H. Dermoscopy of solitary epithelioid histiocytoma of the scalp: A novel feature. Indian Dermatol Online J [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2021 Sep 28]. Available from: https://www.idoj.in/preprintarticle.asp?id=318465



A 31-year-old male presented with complaint of a sudden onset and rapidly growing painless lesion on the scalp of 15 days duration with no preceding history of trauma or insect bite. Examination showed a solitary, firm, well-defined erythematous nodule measuring 1 × 1 cm with smooth non-exudative surface [Figure 1]. There were no palpable lymph nodes and no other systemic abnormalities.
Figure 1: Nodule with a smooth non exudative surface

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Dermoscopy of the lesion showed a central yellow orange area [Figure 2]a with superficial white scales overlying structureless areas [Figure 2]b in the periphery. Linear curved vessels of different lengths arranged in a parallel array were seen around the central yellow area [Figure 2]b.
Figure 2: Dermoscopic image (Dermlite, DL1, USA, 10X, polarised) (a) Red arrow -setting sun sign; (b) Blue arrow - superficially attached white scales overlying structureless areas, Green arrow – 'raindrops falling on a windowpane' appearance

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Excision biopsy of the lesion showed infiltrate composed of large cells with vesicular nuclei and small prominent nucleoli and few cells showing folded crumpled membrane along with diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils along with occasional giant cells [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells were positive for CD68 and stained weakly for S100 and CD1a. CD34 was restricted to endothelial lining.
Figure 3: (a). Photomicrograph showing normal epidermis with papillary dermis, reticular dermis and subcutaneous tissue showing infiltrate composed of large cells with vesicular nuclei and a diffuse infiltrate of lymphocytes and eosinophils. The pilosebaceous units appear normal. (H and E, 100×). (b). Photomicrograph showing large cells with vesicular nuclei and small prominent nucleoli with few cells showing folded crumpled membrane with a diffuse infiltrate of numerous lymphocytes and eosinophils in the background (H and E, 1000×)

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Figure 4: Photomicrograph collage showing showing large cells with vesicular nuclei and small prominent nucleoli with few cells showing folded crumpled membrane. Numerous lymphocytes and eosinophils filled up the background (a) 10X; (b) 100X; (c) 400X; (d)1000X

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Dermoscopy of solitary epithelioid histiocytoma, has an auxiliary role in its diagnosis.[1] There are only few reports of solitary epithelioid histiocytoma in which dermoscopy findings have been described earlier.

Few dermoscopic patterns previously reported are

  • Dotted vessel and light-brown globules on a yellow background[2]
  • Uniformly yellow central area and a pink-orange colour in the periphery—”Setting sun sign”[3]
  • Crown vessels and white dots were demonstrated along with the presence of light-yellow background in a recent study[4] as a result of congestion of capillaries and veins. Crown vessels consists of homogenously curved, slightly arborizing vessels which meet at the centre of the lesion.
  • Arborizing vessels have also been described in solitary histiocytomas which sometimes can mimic BCCs.[5]


In our case, an additional dermoscopy finding mimicking “raindrops falling on a windowpane” was observed. Unlike crown vessels, the vascular architecture in this case showed vessels arranged in a parallel configuration, with no arborisation and no convergence at any point. Hence the description of “raindrops on a window pane”.

This finding might be due to pooling of blood resulting from congestion of the venules, manifesting as “raindrops” on dermoscopy.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
de Oliveira FL, Nogueira LLC, Chaves GM de C, Muniz MDV, Timbó RPF, Sasse MM, et al. A unique dermoscopy pattern of solitary cutaneous reticulohistiocytosis. Case Rep Dermatol Med [Internet] 2013 ;2013. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3580893/. [Last cited on 2020 Feb 06].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Llamas-Velasco M, Gallo E, Navarro R, Sánchez-Pérez J. [Dermoscopic findings in solitary reticulohistiocytosis]. Actas 2010;101:456-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Delorenze LM, Russo T, Boechat M, Castro G, Argenziano G, Pagliuca F, et al. Dermoscopy of solitary cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018;153:579-80.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Behera B, Chandrashekar L, Gochhait D, Gupta D, Thappa DM. Crown vessels and follicular white dot: New dermoscopic findings in a case of solitary reticulohistiocytoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018;78:e57-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Güleç AT. Solitary reticulohistiocytoma with arborizing vessels: A new mimicker of basal cell carcinoma. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016;74:e5-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]



 

 
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